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For example, in researchers at Bristol University successfully glued RFID micro-transponders to live ants in order to study their behavior.
Hitachi holds the record for the smallest RFID chip, at 0. The RFID tag can be affixed to an object and used to track and manage inventory, assets, people, etc.
For example, it can be affixed to cars, computer equipment, books, mobile phones, etc. RFID offers advantages over manual systems or use of bar codes.
The tag can be read if passed near a reader, even if it is covered by the object or not visible. The tag can be read inside a case, carton, box or other container, and unlike barcodes, RFID tags can be read hundreds at a time.
Bar codes can only be read one at a time using current devices. RFID can be used in a variety of applications,   such as:.
In three factors drove a significant increase in RFID usage: The adoption of these standards were driven by EPCglobal, a joint venture between GS1 and GS1 US , which were responsible for driving global adoption of the barcode in the s and s.
RFID provides a way for organizations to identify and manage stock, tools and equipment asset tracking , etc. Manufactured products such as automobiles or garments can be tracked through the factory and through shipping to the customer.
Automatic identification with RFID can be used for inventory systems. Many organisations require that their vendors place RFID tags on all shipments to improve supply chain management.
RFID is used for item level tagging in retail stores. In addition to inventory control, this provides both protection against theft by customers shoplifting and employees "shrinkage" by using electronic article surveillance EAS , and a self checkout process for customers.
Tags of different type can be physically removed with a special tool or deactivated electronically once items have been paid for.
Casinos can use RFID to authenticate poker chips , and can selectively invalidate any chips known to be stolen. RFID tags are widely used in identification badges , replacing earlier magnetic stripe cards.
These badges need only be held within a certain distance of the reader to authenticate the holder. Tags can also be placed on vehicles, which can be read at a distance, to allow entrance to controlled areas without having to stop the vehicle and present a card or enter an access code.
Facebook is using RFID cards at most of their live events to allow guests to automatically capture and post photos. The automotive brands have adopted RFID for social media product placement more quickly than other industries.
To prevent retailers diverting products, manufacturers are exploring the use of RFID tags on promoted merchandise so that they can track exactly which product has sold through the supply chain at fully discounted prices.
Yard management, shipping and freight and distribution centers use RFID tracking. In the railroad industry, RFID tags mounted on locomotives and rolling stock identify the owner, identification number and type of equipment and its characteristics.
This can be used with a database to identify the lading , origin, destination, etc. In commercial aviation, RFID is used to support maintenance on commercial aircraft.
RFID tags are used to identify baggage and cargo at several airports and airlines. Some countries are using RFID for vehicle registration and enforcement.
RFID is used in intelligent transportation systems. The data are fed through the broadband wireless infrastructure to the traffic management center to be used in adaptive traffic control of the traffic lights.
The RFID antenna in a permanently installed coupling half fixed part unmistakably identifies the RFID transponder placed in the other coupling half free part after completed coupling.
When connected the transponder of the free part transmits all important information contactless to the fixed part. The control is enabled to automatically start subsequent process steps.
At least one company has introduced RFID to identify and locate underground infrastructure assets such as gas pipelines , sewer lines , electrical cables, communication cables, etc.
In addition to information also contained on the visual data page of the passport, Malaysian e-passports record the travel history time, date, and place of entries and exits from the country.
ICAO standards provide for e-passports to be identifiable by a standard e-passport logo on the front cover. Since , RFID tags included in new United States passports will store the same information that is printed within the passport, and include a digital picture of the owner.
The department will also implement Basic Access Control BAC , which functions as a personal identification number PIN in the form of characters printed on the passport data page.
The BAC also enables the encryption of any communication between the chip and interrogator. In many countries, RFID tags can be used to pay for mass transit fares on bus, trains, or subways, or to collect tolls on highways.
Some bike lockers are operated with RFID cards assigned to individual users. A prepaid card is required to open or enter a facility or locker and is used to track and charge based on how long the bike is parked.
The Zipcar car-sharing service uses RFID cards for locking and unlocking cars and for member identification. Originally meant for large ranches and rough terrain, since the outbreak of mad-cow disease , RFID has become crucial in animal identification management.
An implantable RFID tag or transponder can also be used for animal identification. The USDA is currently developing its own program.
RFID tags are required for all cattle sold in Australia and in some states, sheep and goats as well. Biocompatible microchip implants that utilize RFID technology are being routinely implanted in to humans.
In British scientist Mark Gasson had an advanced glass capsule RFID device surgically implanted into his left hand and subsequently demonstrated how a computer virus could wirelessly infect his implant and then be transmitted on to other systems.
There is controversy regarding human applications of implantable RFID technology including concerns that individuals could potentially be tracked by carrying an identifier unique to them.
Privacy advocates have protested against implantable RFID chips, warning of potential abuse. Some are concerned this could lead to abuse by an authoritarian government, to removal of freedoms,  and to the emergence of an "ultimate panopticon ", a society where all citizens behave in a socially accepted manner because others might be watching.
In healthcare, there is a need for increased visibility, efficiency, and gathering of data around relevant interactions. RFID tracking solutions are able to help healthcare facilities manage mobile medical equipment, improve patient workflow, monitor environmental conditions, and protect patients, staff and visitors from infection or other hazards.
Adoption of RFID in the medical industry has been widespread and very effective. Hospitals are among the first users to combine both active and passive RFID.
Many successful deployments in the healthcare industry have been cited where active technology tracks high-value, or frequently moved items, where passive technology tracks smaller, lower cost items that only need room-level identification.
A physical RFID tag may be incorporated with browser-based software to increase its efficacy. This software allows for different groups or specific hospital staff, nurses, and patients to see real-time data relevant to each piece of tracked equipment or personnel.
Real-time data is stored and archived to make use of historical reporting functionality and to prove compliance with various industry regulations.
This combination of RFID real-time locating system hardware and software provides a powerful data collection tool for facilities seeking to improve operational efficiency and reduce costs.
The trend is toward using ISO c as the tag of choice and combining an active tagging system that relies on existing Since a number of U. Libraries have used RFID to replace the barcodes on library items.
The tag can contain identifying information or may just be a key into a database. An RFID system may replace or supplement bar codes and may offer another method of inventory management and self-service checkout by patrons.
It can also act as a security device, taking the place of the more traditional electromagnetic security strip. Since RFID tags can be read through an item, there is no need to open a book cover or DVD case to scan an item, and a stack of books can be read simultaneously.
Book tags can be read while books are in motion on a conveyor belt , which reduces staff time. This can all be done by the borrowers themselves, reducing the need for library staff assistance.
With portable readers, inventories could be done on a whole shelf of materials within seconds. RFID taking a large burden off staff could also mean that fewer staff will be needed, resulting in some of them getting laid off,  but that has so far not happened in North America where recent surveys have not returned a single library that cut staff because of adding RFID.
In fact, library budgets are being reduced for personnel and increased for infrastructure, making it necessary for libraries to add automation to compensate for the reduced staff size.
Also, the tasks that RFID takes over are largely not the primary tasks of librarians. A finding in the Netherlands is that borrowers are pleased with the fact that staff are now more available for answering questions.
Privacy concerns have been raised surrounding library use of RFID. However, library RFID tags do not contain any patron information,  and the tags used in the majority of libraries use a frequency only readable from approximately 10 feet 3.
Another possible enhancement would be to give each book a new code every time it is returned. In future, should readers become ubiquitous and possibly networked , then stolen books could be traced even outside the library.
Tag removal could be made difficult if the tags are so small that they fit invisibly inside a random page, possibly put there by the publisher.
RFID technologies are now also implemented in end-user applications in museums. An example was the custom-designed temporary research application, "eXspot," at the Exploratorium , a science museum in San Francisco, California.
A visitor entering the museum received an RF Tag that could be carried as a card. The eXspot system enabled the visitor to receive information about specific exhibits.
Aside from the exhibit information, the visitor could take photographs of themselves at the exhibit. It was also intended to allow the visitor to take data for later analysis.
The collected information could be retrieved at home from a "personalized" website keyed to the RFID tag. RFID for timing races began in the early s with pigeon racing, introduced by the company Deister Electronics in Germany.
RFID can provide race start and end timings for individuals in large races where it is impossible to get accurate stopwatch readings for every entrant.
In the race, the racers wear tags that are read by antennas placed alongside the track or on mats across the track.
UHF tags provide accurate readings with specially designed antennas. Rush error, lap count errors and accidents at start time are avoided since anyone can start and finish any time without being in a batch mode.
Short range compact chips are twist tied to the shoe or velcro strapped the ankle. These need to be about mm from the mat and so give very good temporal resolution.
Riders have a transponder on their person, normally on their arm. When they complete a lap they swipe or touch the receiver which is connected to a computer and log their lap time.
A number of ski resorts have adopted RFID tags to provide skiers hands-free access to ski lifts. Skiers do not have to take their passes out of their pockets.
This nearly contacts the sensor unit on the left of the turnstile as the skier pushes through to the lift. These systems were based on high frequency HF at The bulk of ski areas in Europe, from Verbier to Chamonix use these systems.
Currently cameras stay focused on the quarterback , however, numerous plays are happening simultaneously on the field. The RFID chip will provide new insight into these simultaneous plays.
The RFID chip will make individual player information accessible to the public. The data will be available via the NFL app.
They may never completely replace barcodes, due in part to their higher cost and the advantage of multiple data sources on the same object.
Also, unlike RFID labels, barcodes can be generated and distributed electronically, e. An example is airline boarding passes.
The new EPC , along with several other schemes, is widely available at reasonable cost. The storage of data associated with tracking items will require many terabytes.
Filtering and categorizing RFID data is needed to create useful information. The unique identity is a mandatory requirement for RFID tags, despite special choice of the numbering scheme.
RFID tag data capacity is large enough that each individual tag will have a unique code, while current bar codes are limited to a single type code for a particular product.
This may help to combat theft and other forms of product loss. The tracing of products is an important feature that gets well supported with RFID tags containing a unique identity of the tag and also the serial number of the object.
This may help companies cope with quality deficiencies and resulting recall campaigns, but also contributes to concern about tracking and profiling of consumers after the sale.
RFID has recently developed in the waste management industry. Active RFID tags also have the potential to function as low-cost remote sensors that broadcast telemetry back to a base station.
Applications of tagometry data could include sensing of road conditions by implanted beacons , weather reports, and noise level monitoring. Passive RFID tags can also report sensor data.
There are also several specific industries that have set guidelines. In principle, every country can set its own rules for frequency allocation for RFID tags, and not all radio bands are available in all countries.
The return signal of the tag may still cause interference for other radio users. Readers are required to monitor a channel before transmitting "Listen Before Talk" ; this requirement has led to some restrictions on performance, the resolution of which is a subject of current research.
In some countries, a site license is needed, which needs to be applied for at the local authorities, and can be revoked. According to an overview assembled by GS1 , as of 31 October , regulations are in place in 78 countries representing ca.
Standards that have been made regarding RFID include:. In order to ensure global interoperability of products, several organizations have set up additional standards for RFID testing.
These standards include conformance, performance and interoperability tests. Two tag air interfaces the protocol for exchanging information between a tag and a reader were defined but not ratified by EPCglobal prior to These protocols, commonly known as Class 0 and Class 1, saw significant [ clarification needed ] commercial implementation in — In , the Hardware Action Group created a new protocol, the Class 1 Generation 2 interface, which addressed a number of problems that had been experienced with Class 0 and Class 1 tags.
This was approved after a contention from Intermec that the standard may infringe a number of their RFID-related patents. It was decided that the standard itself does not infringe their patents, making the standard royalty free.
Not every successful reading of a tag an observation is useful for business purposes. A large amount of data may be generated that is not useful for managing inventory or other applications.
For example, a customer moving a product from one shelf to another, or a pallet load of articles that passes several readers while being moved in a warehouse, are events that do not produce data that are meaningful to an inventory control system.
Event filtering is required to reduce this data inflow to a meaningful depiction of moving goods passing a threshold. Various concepts [ example needed ] have been designed, mainly offered as middleware performing the filtering from noisy and redundant raw data to significant processed data.
Furthermore, no emerging standard has yet become as universal as the barcode. This is mostly as result of the fact that RFID tags can be read, and legitimate transactions with readers can be eavesdropped, from non-trivial distances.
A second method of prevention is by using cryptography. Rolling codes and challenge-response authentication CRA are commonly used to foil monitor-repetition of the messages between the tag and reader; as any messages that have been recorded would prove to be unsuccessful on repeat transmission.
The protocols used during CRA can be symmetric , or may use public key cryptography. Unauthorized reading of RFID tags presents a risk to privacy.
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