Union jack zusammensetzung

union jack zusammensetzung

Royal Standards (Flaggen der Königlichen Familie)[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten] –, Flagge des Gouverneurs der Britischen Jungferninseln, Union Jack mit dem umkranzten Wappen der Britischen Jungferninseln im Zentrum. Mai Union Jack ist der traditionelle Name der Nationalflagge des Vereinigten vor dem Hintergrund der multikulturellen Zusammensetzung der. All administrative. Union Jack ist die populäre Bezeichnung der Nationalflagge des Vereinigten Königreichs . Seit den er Jahren wird zuweilen diskutiert, vor dem Hintergrund der multikulturellen Zusammensetzung der Bevölkerung des Vereinigten. St Andrew's Cross 16th c. Kolonialflagge der Goldküste heute Ghana. Very shining bowtie, happy halloween! eye-catching decoration for your outfit. In good used condition. Royal Standard von England, Nordirland und Wales. Government of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 30 November In the event of felix spiele no deal Brexit the French government has said that trains in the Channel Tunnel may first pick be neueste ps4 games into France. On 22 Maythe European Council authorised its negotiators to kostenlos merkur spielen the Brexit talks and it adopted its negotiating directives. The EU also has treaties with many countries regulating the casino jokers to fly over, take off and land there, for example the United States. Oxford Review of Economic Policy. The outcome of the renegotiations was announced in February Labour gained significantly on votes and seats, retaining its position as the second-largest party. Wikisource cherry jackpots casino original text related to this article: Write a customer review. The Government will implement what you decide. Maastricht Treaty Skip to main content. This page 32red mobile casino last edited on 1 Februaryat

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A analysis by economists at Stanford University and Nottingham University estimated that uncertainty around Brexit reduced investment by businesses by approximately 6 percentage points and an employment reduction by 1.

There is overwhelming or near-unanimous agreement among economists that leaving the European Union will adversely affect the British economy in the medium- and long-term.

Due to their longstanding trade integration with the UK, Irish regions have levels of Brexit exposure, which are similar to those of the UK regions with the lowest levels of exposure, namely London and northern parts of Scotland.

Meanwhile, the other most risk-exposed EU regions are all in southern Germany, with levels of risk which are typically half that of any UK or Irish region, and one third of that displayed by many UK regions.

There is also a very noticeable economic geography logic to the levels of exposure with north-western European regions typically being the most exposed to Brexit, while regions in southern and eastern Europe are barely affected at all by Brexit, at least in terms of the trade linkages Former Governor of the Bank of England Mervyn King commented that warnings of economic doom regarding leaving the EU were overstated and that the UK should leave the single market and probably the customs union in order to gain more opportunities, which would lead to improved British economic performance.

Short-term macroeconomic forecasts by the Bank of England and other banks of what would happen immediately after the Brexit referendum proved to be too pessimistic.

He compared short-term economic forecasts to weather forecasts and the long-term economic forecasts to climate forecasts: If banks located in the UK cannot obtain passporting rights, they have strong incentives to relocate to financial centres within the EU.

Brexit requires relocating the offices and staff of the European Medicines Agency and European Banking Authority , currently based in London.

According to a study by University of Exeter and Chatham House researchers, there are considerable benefits for the UK to be integrated into the European energy market.

The study notes, "if the UK wants to enjoy the economic benefits of remaining part of what is an increasingly integrated European electricity market then, as European legislation is currently drafted, it will not only have to forgo an element of autonomy through accepting legislation and regulations made collectively at the EU level, but it will also lose much of its voice in that decision making process, effectively becoming a rule-taker rather than a rule-maker.

The combined EU fishing fleets land about 6 million tonnes of fish per year, [] of which about 3 million tonnes are from UK waters. The UK government announced in July that it would end the convention in Loss of access to UK waters will particularly affect the Irish fishing industry which obtains a third of its catch there.

According to an analysis by researchers at Wageningen University and Research , Brexit would lead to higher prices in seafood for consumers because the UK imports most of its seafood.

British fishermen would be able to catch more fish, but the price for UK fish would decline. As a result, the analysis found that Brexit would result in a "lose-lose situation" for both the UK and the EU, and for both British consumers and the fishing industry.

Until now, neighbouring EU Member States have shared the bounty of the living resources of the seas around Britain.

Brexit will have an effect on sports and culture. After Brexit, any foreigner wanting to do so more than temporarily will need a work permit. At present, before Brexit, such work permits for non-EU team players can be tricky to get, especially for young or lower ranked players.

As suggested by the Scottish Government before the referendum, [] the First Minister of Scotland announced that officials were planning an independence referendum due to the result of Scotland voting to remain in the European Union when England and Wales voted to leave.

Sturgeon called for a "phased return" of an independent Scotland back to the EU. After the referendum, First Minister Sturgeon suggested that Scotland might refuse consent for legislation required to leave the EU, [] though some lawyers argue that Scotland cannot block Brexit.

This Act allows for all devolved policy areas to remain within the remit of the Scottish Parliament and reduces the executive power upon exit day that the UK Withdrawal Bill provides for Ministers of the Crown.

Aviation may be heavily affected. The EU has rules allowing its airlines to fly anywhere in the union, also domestic, which will not apply to the UK anymore.

The EU also has treaties with many countries regulating the right to fly over, take off and land there, for example the United States. In the event of a no deal Brexit the French government has said that trains in the Channel Tunnel may not be allowed into France.

In the event of a "no deal" Brexit, the number of permits available to haulage drivers will be "severely limited": Ferries will continue, but with obstacles such as customs checks.

The Financial Times said that there were approximately international agreements, spanning non-EU countries, that the UK would no longer be a party to upon leaving the EU.

Concerns have been raised that Brexit might create security problems for the UK. British leaders have expressed support for retaining access to those information-sharing databases, but it could be complicated to obtain that access as a non-member of the EU.

Brexit would also complicate extradition requests. Under a hard Brexit scenario, the UK would lose access to basic law enforcement tools, such as databases comprising European plane travel records, vehicle registrations, fingerprints and DNA profiles.

A research paper presented to the UK Parliament in July proposed a number of alternatives to membership which would continue to allow access to the EU internal market.

There may be an interim deal between the time the UK leaves the EU and when the final relationship comes in force. There is concern about whether the border between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland becomes a "hard border" with customs and passport checks on the border, [] and whether this could affect the Good Friday Agreement that brought peace to Northern Ireland.

Although the UK government has signed off on proposals including the backstop, it regards the idea of having EU rules applying in Northern Ireland only as a threat to the integrity of the UK, and also does not want the UK as a whole to be subject to EU rules and the customs union indefinitely.

There is freedom of movement for all EU nationals within the Common Travel Area and there are no customs or fixed immigration controls at the border.

Since , the border has been essentially invisible. It is therefore possible that the border will return to being a "hard" one, with fewer, controlled, crossing posts and a customs infrastructure.

Both the EU and the UK have agreed this should be avoided. French Finance Minister Emmanuel Macron also suggested the agreement would be "threatened" by a leave vote.

Nevertheless, the territory remains within the European Union until Brexit is complete. In April , Spanish Foreign Minister Alfonso Dastis announced that Spain hopes to sign off on a bilateral agreement with Britain over Gibraltar before October so as not to hinder a Brexit transition deal.

Talks between London and Madrid had progressed well. While reiterating the Spanish long-term aim of "recovering" Gibraltar, he said that Spain would not hold Gibraltar as a "hostage" to the EU negotiations.

Shortly after the referendum, the German parliament published an analysis on the consequences of a Brexit on the EU and specifically on the economic and political situation of Germany.

Should there be a "hard Brexit", exports would be subject to WTO customs and tariffs. The trade weighted average tariff is 2.

In total, , jobs in Germany depend upon export to Britain, while on the British side about three million jobs depend on export to the EU.

The study emphasises however that the predictions on the economic effects of a Brexit are subject to significant uncertainty.

Thus, the departure of Britain would result in an additional financial burden for the remaining net contributors, unless the budget is reduced accordingly: Analyses indicate that the departure of the relatively economically liberal UK will reduce the ability of remaining economically liberal countries to block measures in the Council of the European Union.

The exit of the UK from the European Union means that this blocking minority can no longer be assembled without support from other countries, leading to speculation that it could enable the more protectionist EU countries to achieve specific proposals such as relaxing EU budget discipline or providing EU-wide deposit guarantees within the banking union.

In April , a group of European lawmakers discussed what should be done about the vacated seats. One plan, supported by Gianni Pittella and Emmanuel Macron , is to replace the 73 seats with a pan-European constituency list; other options which were considered include dropping the British seats without replacement, and reassigning some or all of the existing seats from other countries to reduce inequality of representation.

Paul Gallagher , a former Attorney General of Ireland , has suggested this will isolate those countries and deprive them of a powerful partner that shared a common interest in ensuring that EU legislation was not drafted or interpreted in a way that would be contrary to the principles of the common law.

Various EU leaders said that they would not start any negotiation before the UK formally invokes Article There could be no negotiations before the UK formally gives notice.

A long delay before beginning negotiations would be detrimental. Britain could not keep the advantages of the single market but at the same time cancel the "less pleasant rules".

On 15 July , she said: Nick Clegg said the figures showed the Civil Service was unprepared for the very complex negotiations ahead. She also confirmed, "that the Government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a [ meaningful] vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it comes into force.

The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England".

That means a number of things: We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it.

An EU meeting to discuss Brexit was called for 29 April , Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead".

Barnier called for talks to be completed by October to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from to 23 per year.

Following the EU referendum, there have been many opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU.

The results of these polls are shown in the table below. Responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May , by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England.

It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag. In his art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath.

This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens.

These were derived from what Perry called his "Brexit tour of Britain. One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos published 9 March As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.

In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant.

Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite. An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.

In , the television director Martin Durkin wrote and directed an minute long documentary film titled Brexit: Following the Brexit vote, there have been several attempts to set up a new pro-European political party.

So far, none of these parties have had any candidates elected. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Brexit disambiguation.

This article documents an ongoing political event. Information may change rapidly as the event progresses, and initial news reports may be unreliable.

The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information. Please feel free to improve this article or discuss changes on the talk page.

January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Members — elected by parliament Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Women.

Article 50 and negotiations. Part of a series on the. History of women Military history. Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership, — Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Russian interference in the Brexit referendum. European Union Withdrawal Act Economic effects of Brexit.

Brexit and arrangements for science and technology. Continuing UK relationship with the EU. Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar.

Impact of Brexit on the European Union. Brexit in popular culture. The Making of Eurosceptic Britain. Euroscepticism in Contemporary British Politics: Opposition to Europe in the Conservative and Labour Parties since Emerald Group Publishing, This will be midnight Central European Time.

Department for Exiting the European Union. Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 18 January PM to trigger Article 50 by end of March". Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 16 January What are the biggest government defeats?

The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November The Economics of International Disintegration". Journal of Economic Perspectives.

The results I summarize in this section focus on long-run effects and have a forecast horizon of 10 or more years after Brexit occurs.

Less is known about the likely dynamics of the transition process or the extent to which economic uncertainty and anticipation effects will impact the economies of the United Kingdom or the European Union in advance of Brexit.

Retrieved 24 June The Brexit vote two years ago has damaged the UK economy, as a weaker pound has squeezed household incomes and uncertainty has hit investment.

Retrieved 21 November The output cost of the Brexit vote". Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 29 September National Institute Economic Review. Oxford Review of Economic Policy.

Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 25 June The what, when, and why of "Brexit " ". Oxford University Press, March Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 26 October Can Leavers and Remainers call a Christmas truce?

Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 31 August David Lidington warns EU that Chequers plan is only alternative to no-deal".

Retrieved 23 November House of Commons Library. Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 18 March What are the options? Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 3 October Army of Remainers will go door-to-door in bid to overturn EU exit".

De Gaulle says "non" to Britain — again". Retrieved 9 March Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 25 February Britain joins the EEC". Labour votes to leave the EEC".

Retrieved 19 May A comprehensive district level analysis". Becker, Fetzer, Novy, University of Warwick. Retrieved 22 November What did the "longest suicide note" say?

Retrieved 21 October Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 15 September For it being but a delegated power from the People, they who have it cannot pass it to others.

Why the people should have a vote on Maastricht: The House of Lords must uphold democracy and insist on a referendum. Futility of a House with no windows.

Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 31 May Becker and Fetzer, University of Warwick.

Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 25 October Prime minister, buoyed by successful negotiations on eurozone banking reform, rejects "in or out" referendum on EU".

Retrieved 2 July Cameron said he would continue to work for "a different, more flexible and less onerous position for Britain within the EU".

Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 29 February Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 8 June BBC forecasts UK votes to leave".

Retrieved 26 June Petition for second EU referendum rejected". Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 11 May Interim Report July UK Constitutional Law Association.

Retrieved 20 November Court of Justice of the European Union. Retrieved 12 October The Constitution Unit Blog. Retrieved 14 May How plausible is second EU referendum?

The Government will implement what you decide. Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 9 February MPs overwhelmingly back Article 50 bill".

Retrieved 1 February May signs letter that will trigger Brexit". Retrieved 28 March Brexit" Tweet — via Twitter. Retrieved 29 March Triggering Article 50 TEU: Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 23 June UK caves in to EU demand to agree divorce bill before trade talks".

Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 1 July With Merkel there will be no cherrypicking for the British]. Theresa May to trigger Article 50 by end of March".

Retrieved 16 October UK to leave single market, says Theresa May". Retrieved 15 May Council of the European Union Website. Council of the European Union.

Retrieved 14 April Expatriates, the first armwrestling match between London and Brussels]". London wants to keep EU citizens in Britain]. Retrieved 20 July London bleibt zu Brexit-Rechnung unverbindlich" [Second round of negotiations in Brussels: London remains non-committal to Brexit bill].

Retrieved 21 July UK and EU at odds over "exit bill " ". Brexit customs proposal short on details". Retrieved 30 August Retrieved 2 September Retrieved 5 September Retrieved 7 September UK needs to clarify issues — Macron".

Retrieved 23 September Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 8 December EU leaders agree to move talks to next stage". Retrieved 19 December Giuseppe Conte to head populist coalition".

Retrieved 11 June In those circumstances, Brexit does not merely become a second-order issue for the EU. Any Brexit deal would also resonate differently in Britain.

The EU with which British MPs and voters may be asked to approve a deal this autumn could be a less stable and predictable political entity.

Retrieved 20 June Cabinet backs draft agreement". Retrieved 15 November European Commission - Press release, Brussels, 19 December Retrieved 23 July Retrieved 6 February

Horizontale Auflösung 28,35 dpc Vertikale Auflösung 28,35 dpc. Great as decir and as extra storage! Kolonialflagge von Britisch Honduras heute Belize. The New York Times. Es wurde auch Privatpersonen erlaubt, eine entsprechende Red Ensign zu führen. Kolonialflagge der Zentralafrikanischen Föderation heute: Flagge des Gouverneurs der Pitcairninseln. Die Flagge von Wales hat dagegen nie Aufnahme in den Union Jack gefunden, da Wales schon durch den Act of Union , also lange vor der Gründung des Vereinigten Königreiches, an England angeschlossen wurde und durch das englische Georgskreuz als hinreichend vertreten galt; es existieren jedoch Entwürfe für einen Union Jack mit dem walisischen Davidskreuz gelbes Kreuz auf schwarzem Grund. Royal New Zealand Navy Ensign. Diese Datei ist möglicherweise nicht mit den Richtlinien von Wikimedia Commons kompatibel. Kolonialflagge der Goldküste heute Ghana. Im Zentrum ein goldenes rosenumkranztes, gekröntes E. Flagge des Kommissars Südgeorgiens und der Südlichen Sandwichinseln.

Talks between London and Madrid had progressed well. While reiterating the Spanish long-term aim of "recovering" Gibraltar, he said that Spain would not hold Gibraltar as a "hostage" to the EU negotiations.

Shortly after the referendum, the German parliament published an analysis on the consequences of a Brexit on the EU and specifically on the economic and political situation of Germany.

Should there be a "hard Brexit", exports would be subject to WTO customs and tariffs. The trade weighted average tariff is 2. In total, , jobs in Germany depend upon export to Britain, while on the British side about three million jobs depend on export to the EU.

The study emphasises however that the predictions on the economic effects of a Brexit are subject to significant uncertainty.

Thus, the departure of Britain would result in an additional financial burden for the remaining net contributors, unless the budget is reduced accordingly: Analyses indicate that the departure of the relatively economically liberal UK will reduce the ability of remaining economically liberal countries to block measures in the Council of the European Union.

The exit of the UK from the European Union means that this blocking minority can no longer be assembled without support from other countries, leading to speculation that it could enable the more protectionist EU countries to achieve specific proposals such as relaxing EU budget discipline or providing EU-wide deposit guarantees within the banking union.

In April , a group of European lawmakers discussed what should be done about the vacated seats. One plan, supported by Gianni Pittella and Emmanuel Macron , is to replace the 73 seats with a pan-European constituency list; other options which were considered include dropping the British seats without replacement, and reassigning some or all of the existing seats from other countries to reduce inequality of representation.

Paul Gallagher , a former Attorney General of Ireland , has suggested this will isolate those countries and deprive them of a powerful partner that shared a common interest in ensuring that EU legislation was not drafted or interpreted in a way that would be contrary to the principles of the common law.

Various EU leaders said that they would not start any negotiation before the UK formally invokes Article There could be no negotiations before the UK formally gives notice.

A long delay before beginning negotiations would be detrimental. Britain could not keep the advantages of the single market but at the same time cancel the "less pleasant rules".

On 15 July , she said: Nick Clegg said the figures showed the Civil Service was unprepared for the very complex negotiations ahead.

She also confirmed, "that the Government will put the final deal that is agreed between the UK and the EU to a [ meaningful] vote in both Houses of Parliament, before it comes into force.

The Government has stated its intention to "secure the specific interests of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, as well as those of all parts of England".

That means a number of things: We need to have an arrangement in which this arrangement can continue for those citizens who on an individual basis are requesting it.

An EU meeting to discuss Brexit was called for 29 April , Donald Tusk stating that the "priority would be giving "clarity" to EU residents, business and member states about the talks ahead".

Barnier called for talks to be completed by October to give time for any agreement to be ratified before the UK leaves in March The European Commission has, following the "Better regulation" initiative, in place since before Brexit, reduced the number of legislative proposals from to 23 per year.

Following the EU referendum, there have been many opinion polls on the question of whether the UK was "right" or "wrong" to vote to leave the EU.

The results of these polls are shown in the table below. Responses by visual artists to Brexit include a mural, painted in May , by the secretive graffiti artist Banksy near the ferry port at Dover in southern England.

It shows a workman using a chisel to chip off one of the stars on the European Union Flag. In his art exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in London, the artist Grayson Perry showed a series of ceramic, tapestry and other works of art dealing with the divisions in Britain during the Brexit campaign and in its aftermath.

This included two large ceramic pots, Perry called his Brexit Vases, standing on plinths ten feet apart, on the first of which were scenes involving pro-European British citizens, and on the second scenes involving anti-European British citizens.

These were derived from what Perry called his "Brexit tour of Britain. One of the first novels to engage with a post-Brexit Britain was Rabbitman by Michael Paraskos published 9 March As a result, Rabbitman is set partly in a post-Brexit Britain in which society has collapsed and people are dependent on European Union food aid.

In this novel, the first post-Brexit general election in is won by a violent right-wing former football hooligan called Bob Grant.

Board charts the response to this of the hitherto pro-European Union metropolitan political elite. An allegorical work, the play uses the device of a convention called by the goddess Britannia , who is concerned about the future of the British people.

In , the television director Martin Durkin wrote and directed an minute long documentary film titled Brexit: Following the Brexit vote, there have been several attempts to set up a new pro-European political party.

So far, none of these parties have had any candidates elected. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Brexit disambiguation.

This article documents an ongoing political event. Information may change rapidly as the event progresses, and initial news reports may be unreliable.

The last updates to this article may not reflect the most current information. Please feel free to improve this article or discuss changes on the talk page.

January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Members — elected by parliament Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Members — election Women.

Article 50 and negotiations. Part of a series on the. History of women Military history. Opinion polling for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

United Kingdom renegotiation of European Union membership, — Campaigning in the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Results of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum.

Aftermath of the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum. Russian interference in the Brexit referendum.

European Union Withdrawal Act Economic effects of Brexit. Brexit and arrangements for science and technology.

Continuing UK relationship with the EU. Effect of Brexit on Gibraltar. Impact of Brexit on the European Union. Brexit in popular culture. The Making of Eurosceptic Britain.

Euroscepticism in Contemporary British Politics: Opposition to Europe in the Conservative and Labour Parties since Emerald Group Publishing, This will be midnight Central European Time.

Department for Exiting the European Union. Retrieved 24 August Retrieved 18 January PM to trigger Article 50 by end of March".

Retrieved 2 October Retrieved 16 January What are the biggest government defeats? The New York Times. Retrieved 28 November The Economics of International Disintegration".

Journal of Economic Perspectives. The results I summarize in this section focus on long-run effects and have a forecast horizon of 10 or more years after Brexit occurs.

Less is known about the likely dynamics of the transition process or the extent to which economic uncertainty and anticipation effects will impact the economies of the United Kingdom or the European Union in advance of Brexit.

Retrieved 24 June The Brexit vote two years ago has damaged the UK economy, as a weaker pound has squeezed household incomes and uncertainty has hit investment.

Retrieved 21 November The output cost of the Brexit vote". Retrieved 1 October Retrieved 29 September National Institute Economic Review.

Oxford Review of Economic Policy. Retrieved 6 October Retrieved 25 June The what, when, and why of "Brexit " ". Oxford University Press, March Retrieved 22 July Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 26 October Can Leavers and Remainers call a Christmas truce?

Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 31 August David Lidington warns EU that Chequers plan is only alternative to no-deal".

Retrieved 23 November House of Commons Library. Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 18 March What are the options? Retrieved 24 February Retrieved 3 October Army of Remainers will go door-to-door in bid to overturn EU exit".

De Gaulle says "non" to Britain — again". Retrieved 9 March Parliament of the United Kingdom. Retrieved 25 February Britain joins the EEC".

Labour votes to leave the EEC". Retrieved 19 May A comprehensive district level analysis". Becker, Fetzer, Novy, University of Warwick.

Retrieved 22 November What did the "longest suicide note" say? Retrieved 21 October Archived from the original on 13 September Retrieved 15 September For it being but a delegated power from the People, they who have it cannot pass it to others.

Why the people should have a vote on Maastricht: The House of Lords must uphold democracy and insist on a referendum. Futility of a House with no windows.

Archived from the original on 21 September Retrieved 16 July Retrieved 31 May Becker and Fetzer, University of Warwick.

Retrieved 30 November Retrieved 25 October Prime minister, buoyed by successful negotiations on eurozone banking reform, rejects "in or out" referendum on EU".

Retrieved 2 July Cameron said he would continue to work for "a different, more flexible and less onerous position for Britain within the EU".

Retrieved 23 April Retrieved 29 February Government of the United Kingdom. Archived from the original on 28 May Retrieved 2 June Archived from the original on 3 June Retrieved 8 June BBC forecasts UK votes to leave".

Retrieved 26 June Petition for second EU referendum rejected". Retrieved 9 July Retrieved 5 July Retrieved 11 May Interim Report July UK Constitutional Law Association.

Retrieved 20 November Court of Justice of the European Union. Retrieved 12 October The Constitution Unit Blog. Retrieved 14 May How plausible is second EU referendum?

The Government will implement what you decide. Retrieved 27 June Retrieved 8 March Retrieved 9 February MPs overwhelmingly back Article 50 bill".

Retrieved 1 February May signs letter that will trigger Brexit". Retrieved 28 March Brexit" Tweet — via Twitter.

Retrieved 29 March Triggering Article 50 TEU: Retrieved 18 November Retrieved 23 June UK caves in to EU demand to agree divorce bill before trade talks".

Retrieved 9 September Turkey ranks 8th in the list of countries by steel production. In , total steel production was 29 million tonnes. Its objectives include academic research in nuclear energy, and the development and implementation of peaceful nuclear tools.

Turkish government companies for research and development in military technologies include Turkish Aerospace Industries , Aselsan , Havelsan , Roketsan , MKE , among others.

It consists of the construction of a spaceport , the development of satellite launch vehicles as well as the establishment of remote earth stations.

The Turkish construction and contracting industry is made up of a large number of businesses, the largest of which was ranked 40th in the world by size.

In there were ninety-eight airports in Turkey , [] including 22 international airports. Trials began on April 23, , and revenue earning service began on March 13, As of , the Turkish merchant marine included 1, ships registered at home , ranking 7th in the world.

As of , there were 17,, operational landline telephones in Turkey, which ranked 18th in the world; [] while there were 65,, registered mobile phones in the country, which ranked 15th in the world during the same year.

The telecommunications liberalisation process started in after the creation of the Telecommunication Authority, and is still ongoing. Private sector companies operate in mobile telephony, long distance telephony and Internet access.

Additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers.

As of , there were 16 AM, FM, and 6 shortwave radio stations in the country. As of , there were 42,, internet users in Turkey, which ranked 15th in the world; [] while as of , there were 7,, internet hosts in the country, which ranked 16th in the world.

Tourism is one of the most dynamic and fastest developing sectors in Turkey. It possesses the sole right to issue notes.

It also has the obligation to provide for the monetary requirements of the state agricultural and commercial enterprises.

All foreign exchange transfers are exclusively handled by the central bank. In , there were 72 banks in Turkey ; most of which were owned by construction companies that used them as financial assets for siphoning money into their other operations.

The Turkish lira , which was pegged to the U. This financial breakdown reduced the number of banks to During the past decade since , the Turkish lira has also gained a considerable amount of value and maintained its stability, becoming an internationally exchangeable currency once again in line with the inflation that dropped to single-digit figures since The economy grew at an average rate of 7.

Fiscal deficit is benefiting though in a small amount from large industrial privatizations. Banking came under stress beginning in October as Turkish banking authorities warned state-run banks against the pullback of loans from the larger financial sectors.

The five big state-owned banks were restructured in Political involvement was minimized and loaning policies were changed.

There are also numerous international banks , which have branches in Turkey. A number of Arabian trading banks, which practice an Islamic banking , are also present in the country.

National Reinsurance Corporation which was founded on February 26, The insurance market is officially regulated through the Ministry of Commerce.

In recent years, the chronically high inflation has been brought under control and this has led to the launch of a new currency, the "New Turkish lira ", on January 1, , to cement the acquisition of the economic reforms and erase the vestiges of an unstable economy.

In , 12 Turkish companies were listed in the Forbes Global list - an annual ranking of the top public companies in the world by Forbes magazine.

There are also 2 conglomerates followed by transportation and beverages industries with 1 companies each. As of , listed companies were:.

The Baku—Tbilisi—Ceyhan pipeline , the second-longest oil pipeline in the world, was inaugurated on May 10, The planned Nabucco Pipeline will also pass from Turkey and provide the European Union member states with natural gas from the Caspian Sea basin.

The Blue Stream , a major trans- Black Sea gas pipeline, is operational since November 17, , and delivers natural gas from Russia to Turkey.

The Tabriz—Ankara pipeline is a 2,kilometre-long 1,mile natural gas pipeline, which runs from Tabriz in northwestern Iran to Ankara in Turkey.

The pipeline was commissioned on July 26, In the future, these two pipelines will be among the main supply routes for the planned Nabucco Pipeline from Turkey to Europe.

To cover the increasing energy needs of its population and ensure the continued raising of its living standards, Turkey plans to build several nuclear power plants.

Following the construction of experimental reactors, proposals to build large scale nuclear power plants were presented as early as in the s by Turkish Atomic Energy Authority , [] but plans were repeatedly canceled even after bids were made by interested manufacturers because of high costs and safety concerns.

Turkey has always chosen CANDU reactors because they burn natural uranium which is cheap and available locally and because they can be refueled online.

Turkey has the fifth-highest direct utilization and capacity of geothermal power in the world. The share of renewable energy, which serves as one of the most important pillars of the National Energy and Mine Policy and led by hydro, wind and solar energy, reached 32 percent in the third quarter of , surpassing the target of 30 percent that was set for Turkey led the way in Europe with an increase of 1.

Turkey is the tenth-ranked producer of minerals in the world in terms of diversity. Around 60 different minerals are currently produced in Turkey.

Apparently there was an unofficial "Scottish version" that attempted to rectify the sense of injustice that the Scottish felt at this innovatory flag.

A distinct reference was made to this version when the King visited Dumfries in Here is what it looked like:. However, the flag was usually restricted to use at sea until the two kingdoms of Scotland and England were united in It was most probably from this use at sea that it got the name "Jack" "Union Jack ".

It was usually flown at the bow end of the ship, from the jack staff. An attempt was made to modify the flag under Oliver Cromwell. A harp was placed in the centre, representing Ireland.

However, the original design was restored along with the restoration of the monarchy in The flag continued to be used in its original form until Jan.

At that time, with the union of Ireland and Great Britain, it became necessary to represent Ireland in the Union Flag and so the cross of St.

Patrick was include thus creating the flag as we now have it. When the southern part of Ireland gained its independence in and became the Irish Free State no alteration was made to the Union Jack.

The name "Union Jack" became official when it was approved in Parliament in It was stated that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag".

The "Union Jack" or "Union Flag" is a composite design made up of three different national symbols: It is, however, in common use:

Union Jack Zusammensetzung Video

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